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Ovarian Cancer

“Overview

A cancerous growth that develops in many different parts of the ovary is known as ovarian cancer. Ovaries are basically a pair of female reproductive glands that helps in the formation of eggs or ova. A number of ovarian cancers occur from the epithelium (outer lining) of the ovary. A majority of these cancers are either malignant germ cell tumors or ovarian epithelial carcinomas.

Types of Ovarian Tumors

There are a number of tumors that may start in the ovaries. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can be categorized into three types –

Stromal Tumors: These tumors begin from those cells that are responsible for holding the ovary together and also for making female hormones.

Germ Cell Tumors: These tumors begin from those cells that are responsible for producing the eggs.

Epithelial Tumors: These tumors begin from those cells which cover the outer surface of the ovary. A majority of ovarian tumors are epithelial tumors. Serous is considered as the most common type of epithelial cancers.

Causes & Symptoms:

Ovarian cancer is considered as one of the most common cancer among women. Some of its major causes include –

The usage of hormone replacement therapy for more than five years especially when only estrogen is used
Inherited gene mutation
Women who are 50 years or above
Obesity
Family history of breast cancer or ovarian cancer
Having never been pregnant
Having had cancer before such as colon, breast or uterine
Early Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

Changes in bowel habits like constipation
Pelvic pain
Heartburn or indigestion
Pain on the lower side of the body
Pain during sexual intercourse
Back pain
Urgent and more frequent urination
Pain in the lower stomach
Feeling full rapidly while eating
The progression of ovarian cancer may result into following symptoms that include –

Loss of appetite
Nausea
Breathlessness
Weight loss
Fatigue
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer:

Although there is no reliable test to detect ovarian cancer, several procedures may help Gyneconcologist diagnose the disease. Screening for ovarian cancer begins with a pelvic exam. The doctor examines the vagina, rectum and lower abdomen for masses or growths.

If the pelvic exam reveals growths on the ovaries, Gyneconcologist can order tests that produce detailed images of the ovaries, as well as other tests and procedures. Depending on the situation, these tests and procedures might include:

Ultrasound. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to produce precise images of structures within the body.
CT scan. A CT scan generates two-dimensional images of the body and can show whether the cancer has spread.
Positron emission tomographic scan (PET). A PET scan defines areas with altered blood supply and can help to identify cancer.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This test uses magnetic energy to generate highly detailed images of the anatomy, including tumors.
Upper G. I. and lower G.I. Scopy – To rule out primary cancer in G. I. Tract.
Blood tests. For women who suspect ovarian cancer or who have previously had ovarian cancer, Gyneconcologist often use the CA125 blood test to detect a protein antigen found at abnormally high levels in the blood serum of women who have ovarian cancer.
Mammography – To rule out metastatic tumours.
Exploratory surgery. Gyneconcologist may use exploratory surgery to confirm a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. They enter the pelvic and abdominal cavities to determine if cancer is present. They may use an instrument that permits a small incision (laparoscopy) or make a larger abdominal incision (laparotomy).
If cancer is present, Gyneconcologist identify the type of tumor and check to see if the cancer has spread. They may remove and examine multiple samples of tissue (biopsies) within the abdomen and may remove some lymph nodes, if necessary. The biopsies help Gyneconcologist determine the stage and extent of the cancer and develop the most appropriate treatment plan for the patient.

Staging ovarian cancer

Gyneconcologist use the results of your surgery in order to determine the extent – or stage – of your cancer. Your doctor may also use information from imaging tests, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), to determine whether cancer has spread within the abdomen. Your cancer’s stage helps determine your prognosis and your treatment options. Stages of ovarian cancer include:

Stage I. Ovarian cancer is confined to one or both ovaries.
Stage II. Ovarian cancer has spread to other locations in the pelvis, such as the uterus or fallopian tubes.
Stage III. Ovarian cancer has spread beyond the pelvis or to the lymph nodes within the abdomen.
Stage IV. Ovarian cancer has spread to organs beyond the abdomen, such as the liver or the lungs.
Treatment for ovarian cancer in India:

Gyneconcologists treat ovarian cancer, Fallopian tube cancer and peritoneal cancer using several approaches. Commonly, they perform surgery to remove cancerous tumors and determine the stage of your cancer. Patient will likely receive surgery and chemotherapy, and occasionally she may receive radiation therapy. Other potential treatments being evaluated include immunotherapy, bone marrow transplant, gene therapy and hormone therapy.

Surgery

Laparotomy. Gyneconcologist perform laparotomy through a large abdominal incision, most often removing your ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, nearby lymph glands, a fold of fatty tissue called the omentum and as much of the tumor as possible. This process is known as surgical debulking or cytoreductive surgery.
Frozen section tissue analysis. This technique involves rapid analysis of your tissue under a microscope. Surgeons determine in minutes whether your tumor is noncancerous or cancerous, dramatically increasing their ability to perform the most appropriate procedure during the first surgery.
Laparoscopy . Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgery that may be used depending on the extent of cancer present when your cancer is diagnosed. Researchers are studying this procedure with the goal of using it more frequently.
Chemotherapy

After surgery, you’ll most likely be treated with chemotherapy – drugs designed to kill any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy may also be used as the initial treatment in some women with advanced ovarian cancer. Chemotherapy drugs can be administered in a vein (intravenously) or injected directly into the abdominal cavity, or both methods of administering the drugs can be used. Chemotherapy drugs can be given alone or in combination.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells. The use of radiation therapy to treat ovarian cancer has declined in recent years, but Gyneconcologist use it in certain cases, such as when patient have a recurrence of cancer at the original site or if she can’t tolerate chemotherapy. Gyneconcologist may use whole abdominal radiation to treat ovarian cancer that remains or recurs in the abdomen.”

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Request for medicine

Patient who has serious problem request for medicine

 

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Drug Verify

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Prescription

Recognizing best source for the specific prescription

 

4.

GDP Instruction

Import medicine under the GDP instruction

 

5.

QA check

Supply drugs to concerned healthcare provider after QA check

 

5.

QA check

Supply drugs to concerned healthcare provider after QA check

 

FAQ

A NPP provides access to post-approval drugs that are approved and commercially available in one or more country, other than the patient’s home country.

 

No. Companies are not required to provide their products through a formal NPP.

 

  • Dealing with unsolicited patient request for drug in an ethical and regulatory controlled manner
  • Providing exposure to, and experience with, company products to physicians in additional countries and build a larger KOL network and future advocates
  • Providing new products to patients who would move to commercial drug when it becomes available in these countries
  • Generating additional revenues in countries that allow you to charge for drugs supplied on a named patient basis

Companies can provide drug to patients in any country in which they have not yet received marketing approval. This includes countries in which a company plans to seek marketing approval, as well as those countries in which a company does not plan to seek marketing approval.

 
 

INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS

As a named patient medicines you may find yourself in the frightening position that you have a serious condition or illness and the treatment you need is not available in your home country. It is possible that the medicines are available outside your country and if your physician decides that these drugs would be suitable for the treatment of your illness, they then face the challenge of obtaining them for you. We help physicians across the world access medicines which are not approved or licensed in their country, but may be required to meet the special needs of an individual patient. The service we provide not only locates and supplies the required medicines but ensures that the physician has all the quality assurance and supporting clinical information they will need to safely prescribe it to you. If you are confronted with a situation where a drug is not available to you, talk to your physician or healthcare professional about Named Patient Program and ask them to contact us. We will then work directly with your physician to help them in patient access program and understand what options are available.

 

 

Drugs We Provide Under NPS

Drug Directory

Orphan Drugs

1.

Request for medicine

Patient who has serious problem request for medicine

 

2.

Drug Verify

Internal processing of drug verifications at GM Global

 

3.

Prescription

Recognizing best source for the specific prescription

 

4.

GDP Instruction

Import medicine under the GDP instruction

 

5.

QA check

Supply drugs to concerned healthcare provider after QA check

 

5.

QA check

Supply drugs to concerned healthcare provider after QA check

 

FAQ

A NPP provides access to post-approval drugs that are approved and commercially available in one or more country, other than the patient’s home country.

 

No. Companies are not required to provide their products through a formal NPP.

 

  • Dealing with unsolicited patient request for drug in an ethical and regulatory controlled manner
  • Providing exposure to, and experience with, company products to physicians in additional countries and build a larger KOL network and future advocates
  • Providing new products to patients who would move to commercial drug when it becomes available in these countries
  • Generating additional revenues in countries that allow you to charge for drugs supplied on a named patient basis

Companies can provide drug to patients in any country in which they have not yet received marketing approval. This includes countries in which a company plans to seek marketing approval, as well as those countries in which a company does not plan to seek marketing approval.

 
 

INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS

As a named patient medicines you may find yourself in the frightening position that you have a serious condition or illness and the treatment you need is not available in your home country. It is possible that the medicines are available outside your country and if your physician decides that these drugs would be suitable for the treatment of your illness, they then face the challenge of obtaining them for you. We help physicians across the world access medicines which are not approved or licensed in their country, but may be required to meet the special needs of an individual patient. The service we provide not only locates and supplies the required medicines but ensures that the physician has all the quality assurance and supporting clinical information they will need to safely prescribe it to you. If you are confronted with a situation where a drug is not available to you, talk to your physician or healthcare professional about Named Patient Program and ask them to contact us. We will then work directly with your physician to help them in patient access program and understand what options are available.