In vitro fertilization is infertility treatment and a procedure helps with fertilization, embryo development and implantation, so a women get pregnant. In other term it can be defined as a complex procedure which is used to help with fertility or prevent genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child.
IVF is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology (ART). IVF treatment works by using mix combination of medication and surgical procedure to help sperm to fertilize an egg and help fertilized egg implant in uterus.
In vitro fertilization treatment s performed for infertility problem or genetic issues related to infertility. IVF is offered to primary infertility in women over age 40. Below are the causes of infertility which IVF can treat:
• Disorders of ovulation
• Uterine fibroids
• Impaired sperm production or function.
• Any genetic disorder related to infertility.
• Poor egg quality
• Damage of blockage of fallopian tube
Doctor will recommend some clinical and physical test before begin to the IVF cycle. Some screening includes
• Semen analysis
• Uterine exam, Ultrasound
• Infectious disease screening
• Some genetic testing
• Testicular biopsy and HSG
After clinical and physical investigations only further IVF treatment plan will be decided. Below are steps of IVF treatment procedure:
• Ovarian Induction: In this 1st step some medications or with the help of some synthetic hormones given to patient to increase the production of eggs, in case of usage of own egg. In every month menstrual cycle, women produce one egg but IVF requires multiple eggs. In this step doctor will regularly perform blood test and ultrasound to monitor the production of eggs.
• Retrieval of Egg: Egg retrieval procedure is done under general anaesthesia. With the help of ultrasound probe which is inserted into vagina for the identification of follicles. Then needle is inserted through the vagina and into the follicles to retrieve the eggs. In some cases, abdominal ultrasound may use.
• Retrieval off sperm: A male partner who will give semen sample for fertilization of egg artificially.
• Fertilization: A lab technician will mix egg and sperm in petri dish. If this procedure doesn’t produce embryo then doctor may decide to use ICSI.
• Embryo Culture and Transfer: Doctor and team will continuously monitor the fertilized egg to ensure that the cells are dividing and developing. Some genetic test can be performed on embryo to avoid any issue. Embryo transfer procedure is done suing mild sedative. This procedure is painless, patient may feel mild cramping. Transferring procedure is done using the long, thin and flexible tube called catheter into the vagina, through cervix. If IVF treatment is successful, then embryo will be implanted in the lining of uterus about six to 10 days after egg retrieval.
After embryo transfer, patient can resume daily activities but avoid vigorous activities. If after procedure if person notices some severe or moderate paint, then contact doctor.
• Multiple pregnancies increases the risk of low birth weight and premature birth
• Ectopic pregnancy
• Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)
• Bleeding, infections