Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is one of type of cancer which begins in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer usually occur in women’s than men. In 2019 breast cancer diagnosed women’s number ratio is 268,600 and 2,670 in men.

If breast cancer diagnosed in early stages, then risk of spreading breast cancer into other body parts will be less. Breast cancer treatment will be successful if diagnosed in early stage. So breast examination is important.

Most of breast cancer patients don’t recognize the sign and symptoms of breast cancer. Every men and women should aware about breast cancer sign and symptoms. If you find any change in your breast contact to your doctor and get it checked.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer in its early stages does not result in any symptoms. However, some of the symptoms are –

Fluid coming out of the nipple can be green, bloody or clear to yellow. It can appear like pus
Lump in the armpit or breast lump which has uneven edges and hard. This lump usually does not result in any pain
Change in shape or size of the nipple or breast
Tenderness, breast lump and breast pain are some of the common symptoms of male breast cancer.
Advanced Breast Cancer Symptoms

Weight loss
Bone pain
Welling in the armpit
Skin ulcers
Discomfort or breast pain

Breast Cancer Types

There are several types of breast cancers including:

Lobular Carcinoma: This type of breast cancer starts in the lobules.
Ductal Carcinoma: This type of breast cancer begins in the milk duct and this is most common type of cancer.
Invasive breast cancer arises when cancer cells breaks from inside and invade nearby tissue.
Non –invasive breast cancer start arising when breast cancer remain inside the ducts or lobule and has not spread yet. This cells further become invasive and progress to invade other tissue.

OPD Consultations and Breast Cancer Screening
Mammography, Ultrasonography and MRI for Breast Cancer
Routine and Image guided FNAC and breast biopsies
Surgical Biopsies (Excisional Biopsy, Incisional Biopsy)
X-Ray Chest, CT, Bone Scans, PET CT for Staging work up
Receptor Tests
Estrogen and Progesterone receptor
Human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor (HER2/neu)

Treatment of Breast Cancer

After detailed investigations only further treatment plan will be decided and treatment plan depend on the many factors including, health of person, condition of person, cancer stage of patients, and sensitivity of hormones.

The main treatment plan includes:

1. Surgery:
Mastectomy- is the surgical removal of a breast. Breast reconstruction is possible in many patients after the mastectomy.
Simple or total mastectomy- removal of the breast, with its skin and nipple, but no lymph nodes. In some cases, a separate sentinel node biopsy is performed to remove only the first level one to three axillary (armpit) lymph nodes.
Modified Radical mastectomy – removal of the complete affected breast with nipple/areolar region and lymph nodes. Breast reconstruction.
Breast reconstruction after cancer surgery is an option for most women undergoing mastectomy. Surgical options may include reconstruction with implants and autologous flap reconstruction (using the patient’s own tissue).
2. Radiation Therapy: In this treatment high powered radiation beams are used to kill or to target cancer cells.

3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the use of drug remove, kill, or damage cancer cells in a certain area, but chemo can work throughout the whole body.

4. Hormonal Therapy: This type of hormone therapy is done by blocking the hormone receptors on cancer cells. This can slower the growth of cancer.