Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue inside your bones that makes blood-forming cells (blood stem cells). These cells turn into blood cells including:
White blood cells to fight infections.
Red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body.
Platelets to control bleeding.
Blood-forming cells are also found in the blood stream and the umbilical cord blood.
A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure performed to replace bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease, infection, or chemotherapy. This procedure involves transplanting blood stem cells, which travel to the bone marrow where they produce new blood cells and promote growth of new marrow.
A bone marrow transplant replaces your damaged stem cells with healthy cells. This helps your body make enough white blood cells, platelets, or red blood cells to avoid infections, bleeding disorders, or anaemia. Healthy stem cells can come from a donor, or they can come from your own body. In such cases, stem cells can be harvested, or grown, before you start chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Those healthy cells are then stored and used in transplantation.
One marrow transplants can benefit people with a variety of both cancerous (malignant) and noncancerous (benign) diseases, including:
Bone marrow failure syndromes
Inborn errors of metabolism
Plasma cell disorders
There are two major types of bone marrow transplants. The choice of transplant will depend upon the type of disease a patient is suffering from
Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant
Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant
Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is a kind of bone marrow transplant which includes the utilization of stem cells of a donor. Contributor must be a nearby hereditary for stem cell transplant. Frequently, relative is the more compatible donor choice for selection of BMT. Hereditary matches can be found from the donor registry library. Specials tests are additionally performed to discover the ideal match for the donor.
Autologous bone marrow transplant is a kind of BMT where an individual’s own stem cells are utilized for the transplant. From Individual’s body stem cells are taken off before radiotherapy or chemotherapy. High portion of chemotherapy or radiation can make harm the bone marrow cells. At that point stem cells are stored in a cool area or freezer. After chemotherapy or radiation therapy foundational microorganisms are returned to the patient’s body for development of typical platelets. Stem cells are placed again in the patient’s body for formation of usual or normal blood cells after radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
Prior to bone marrow transplant procedure, patient will need to undergo detailed clinical and physical investigations to confirm further treatment plan. Bone marrow transplants take a week. So patients must do all arrangements before bone marrow transplant like- taking acre of some financial statements, arranging medical leave from office work, arrangements of taking care of yourself, bill installments , deciding on health insurance coverage and finding house nearby hospital in case of any emergency.
Bone marrow transplant method is done to patients in clinics or specialized hospitals which focuses practical experience in BMT. To keep away from any kind of infections, patient will be in the medical clinic for the treatment. Hospital stay will depend upon the patient health and condition.
At the point when patient is in clinic:
•The specialist’s group will routinely screen patient’s blood check and important signs.
•Patient will take preparatory drugs to prevent GVHD, to treat or prevent infectious diseases; which incorporates antibiotics, antifungals, and antiviral medicines as prescribed by doctors.
•Blood transfusion will be required depending on the seriousness of the sickness.
•All food nourishments will be taken care of through IV.
Before release ensure all directions and care which must get follow after the bone marrow transplant treatment or after discharge from hospital
Successful bone marrow transplant treatment is depends on how closely donor and recipient match genetically. The engraftment will generally get complete in between 11-30 days after first transplant. Initial sign of successful engraftment is rising white blood cell count. Recovery time of BMT is 3-4 months. It may take longer depending upon some factors: radiation, chemotherapy, donor, at what condition transplant is performed.
Risk in bone marrow transplant treatment when stem cells come from donor.
If patient is receiving the stems cells from donor (Allogenic transplant), he or she may at risk of developing the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD I serious complication in which donor’s cell attacks on patients healthy cells. Graft versus host disease can be mild, moderate or severe or life threatening. This Graft-versus-host disease can occur at any time after a transplant.
Some signs and symptoms of Graft vs host disease are: A rash on skin, Dry, tight, itchy skin, Thickening, A change in skin colour, A very dry mouth, eating difficulty, vomiting, Nausea.
After bone marrow transplant treatment or BMT, patient should change diet habbits. Add helthy diet which is rich in nutrients. To control side effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy dietician can give diet or some food suggestions.
Restrict alcohol intake or avoid it.
Minimize your salt intake.
Avoid grapefruit due to their effect on a group of immunosuppressive medications